SPAIN. Spanish Civil War (1936-9) Madrid. Winter 1936/37. After the Italo-German air raids. The Nationalist offensive on Madrid, which lasted from Nov. 1936 to Feb. 1937, was one of the fiercest of the Civil War. During this period Italy and Germany started helping the Nationalist forces, and the USSR the Popular Front government. The civilians were severely affected by the bombings. Madrid. Hiver 1936-37. Victimes des bombardements de l'aviation fasciste italo-allemande. The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, when part of the Spanish army rebelled against the Second Republic, a democratic government elected in 1931. It gained international dimensions when Fascist Germany and Italy began supporting the military uprising, led by General Franco, with weapons and soldiers. The USSR helped the Republic, and a significant contingent of volunteers joined the International Brigades and fought for the Republic. The conflict became the symbol of a larger conflict between Fascists and Communists. The war ended in 1939 with Franco's victory over the Republicans.